Most of the time, yes. However, some counties, such as Jackson county (Kansas City, MO), will allow a case to be submitted by affidavit as long as one party is represented by an attorney, there are no children, and all property issues have been resolved by written agreement. Any other type of uncontested case will require a brief court appearance to "make a record" of the settlement, is basically a formality to conclude the case.
Contested cases usually require multiple court appearances, but depending on the county and the judge, your divorce attorney may be able to handle all appearances for you.
If the case goes to trial, your appearance is always required.